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Pakistan open market currency rates live

pakistan open market currency rates live

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Palas, Kohistan , has a significant population of western tragopan. The southern plains are home to mongooses , small Indian civet , hares, the Asiatic jackal , the Indian pangolin , the jungle cat , and the desert cat.

There are mugger crocodiles in the Indus, and wild boar , deer, porcupines , and small rodents in the surrounding areas.

The sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are home to Asiatic jackals, striped hyenas , wildcats, and leopards. The chinkara is the only animal that can still be found in significant numbers in Cholistan.

A small number of nilgai are found along the Pakistan—India border and in some parts of Cholistan. The flora and fauna of Pakistan suffer from a number of problems.

Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world, which, along with hunting and pollution, has had adverse effects on the ecosystem.

The government has established a large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves to address these issues.

The first successful democratic transition occurred in May Politics in Pakistan is centred on, and dominated by, a homegrown social philosophy comprising a blend of ideas from socialism , conservatism , and the third way.

As of the general elections held in , the three main political parties in the country are: Since Independence, Pakistan has attempted to balance its relations with foreign nations.

The Kashmir conflict remains the major point of contention between Pakistan and India; three of their four wars were fought over this territory. Because of ideological differences, Pakistan opposed the Soviet Union in the s, and during the Soviet—Afghan War in the s, Pakistan was one of the closest allies of the United States.

Pakistan does not have diplomatic relations with Israel ; [] nonetheless, some Israeli citizens have visited the country on tourist visas.

Sino-Pakistani friendly relations touched new heights as both the countries signed 51 agreements and Memorandums of Understanding MoUs in for co-operation in different areas.

After Independence, Pakistan vigorously pursued bilateral relations with other Muslim countries [] and made an active bid for leadership of the Muslim world , or at least for leadership in efforts to achieve unity.

Pakistan vigorously championed the right of self-determination for Muslims around the world. A federal parliamentary republic state, Pakistan is a federation that comprises four provinces: Punjab , Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Balochistan [] and three territories: The Government of Pakistan exercises the de facto jurisdiction over the Frontier Regions and the western parts of the Kashmir Regions , which are organised into the separate political entities Azad Kashmir and Gilgit—Baltistan formerly Northern Areas.

In , the constitutional assignment the Gilgit—Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order awarded the Gilgit—Baltistan a semi-provincial status , giving it self-government.

The local government system consists of a three-tier system of districts , tehsils , and union councils , with an elected body at each tier.

Law enforcement is carried out by a joint network of the intelligence community with jurisdiction limited to the relevant province or territory.

The court system is organised as a hierarchy, with the Supreme Court at the apex, below which are High Courts , Federal Shariat Courts one in each province and one in the federal capital , District Courts one in each district , Judicial Magistrate Courts in every town and city , Executive Magistrate Courts, and civil courts.

The Penal code has limited jurisdiction in the Tribal Areas, where law is largely derived from tribal customs.

The Kashmir —the most northwesterly region of South Asia—is a major territorial dispute that has hindered relations between India and Pakistan.

The two nations have fought at least three large-scale conventional wars in successive years in , , and However, Pakistan failed to vacate the region and a ceasefire was reached in establishing a Line of Control LoC that divided Kashmir between the two nations.

Pakistan claims that its position is for the right of the people of Jammu and Kashmir to determine their future through impartial elections as mandated by the United Nations, [] while India has stated that Kashmir is an integral part of India, referring to the Simla Agreement and to the fact that elections take place regularly.

The law enforcement in Pakistan is carried out by joint network of several federal and provincial police agencies. The four provinces and the Islamabad Capital Territory ICT each have a civilian police force with jurisdiction extending only to the relevant province or territory.

The most senior officers of all the civilian police forces also form part of the Police Service , which is a component of the civil service of Pakistan.

Namely, there are four provincial police service including the Punjab Police , Sindh Police , Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Police , and the Balochistan Police ; all headed by the appointed senior Inspector-Generals.

The CID bureaus are the crime investigation unit and forms a vital part in each provincial police service.

In the Punjab and Sindh, the Pakistan Rangers are an internal security force with the prime objective to provide and maintain security in war zones and areas of conflict as well as maintaining law and order which includes providing assistance to the police.

The armed forces of Pakistan are the eighth largest in the world in terms of numbers in full-time service, with about , personnel on active duty and , reservists, as of tentative estimates in The Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee is the highest principle staff officer in the armed forces, and the chief military adviser to the civilian government though the chairman has no authority over the three branches of armed forces.

The United States, Turkey, and China maintain close military relations and regularly export military equipment and technology transfer to Pakistan.

In , the military and intelligence community repelled the Afghan incursion in the Bajaur Agency near the Durand Line border.

Military reports indicated that the PAF was in engagement with the Soviet Air Force , supported by the Afghan Air Force during the course of the conflict ; [] one of which belonged to Alexander Rutskoy.

It played a major role in rescuing trapped American soldiers from Mogadishu , Somalia, in in Operation Gothic Serpent.

Pakistan has deployed its military in some Arab countries , providing defence, training, and playing advisory roles. Since the military has been engaged in a war in North-West Pakistan , mainly against the homegrown Taliban factions.

Economists estimate that Pakistan was part of the wealthiest region of the world throughout the first millennium CE, with the largest economy by GDP.

This advantage was lost in the 18th century as other regions such as China and Western Europe edged forward. The unemployment rate among the aged 15 and over population is 5.

It has been slow during periods of democratic transition, but robust during the three periods of martial law , although the foundation for sustainable and equitable growth was not formed.

Sharma termed it possible to transform Pakistan from a "low-income to a middle-income country during the next five years".

Pakistan is one of the largest producers of natural commodities, and its labour market is the 10th-largest in the world.

The structure of the Pakistani economy has changed from a mainly agricultural to a strong service base. Agriculture as of [update] accounts for only It accounts for The country is also the fifth-largest producer of cotton, with cotton production of 14 million bales from a modest beginning of 1.

Land and water resources have not risen proportionately, but the increases have taken place mainly due to gains in labour and agriculture productivity.

The major breakthrough in crop production took place in the late s and s due to the Green Revolution that made a significant contribution to land and yield increases of wheat and rice.

Private tube wells led to a 50 percent increase in the cropping intensity which was augmented by tractor cultivation. While the tube wells raised crop yields by 50 percent, the High Yielding Varieties HYVs of wheat and rice led to a 50—60 percent higher yield.

Industry is the third-largest sector of the economy, accounting for Large-scale manufacturing LSM , at In Pakistan exported 7,, metric tons of cement.

In and , the cement industry in Pakistan became the most profitable sector of the economy. The textile industry has a pivotal position in the manufacturing sector of Pakistan.

In Asia, Pakistan is the eighth-largest exporter of textile products, contributing 9. Unlike the US, where mostly value-added textiles are imported, China buys only cotton yarn and cotton fabric from Pakistan.

In , Pakistani textile products accounted for 3. Services sector has The growth rate of services sector is higher than the growth rate of agriculture and industrial sector.

Services sector accounts for 54 percent of GDP in and little over one-third of total employment. Services sector has strong linkages with other sectors of economy; it provides essential inputs to agriculture sector and manufacturing sector.

As of [update] , Pakistan has over 35 million Internet users and is ranked as one of the top countries that have registered a high growth rate in Internet penetration.

This growth is much better than that of China, whose share in services exports was 3pc and 7. By the end of , nuclear power was provided by four licensed commercial nuclear power plants.

The Sino-Pakistani nuclear cooperation began in the early s. In Pakistan established a second commercial nuclear complex in Karachi with plans of additional reactors, similar to the one in Chashma.

The trail attracted thousands of Europeans and Americans in the s and s who travelled via land through Turkey and Iran into India through Pakistan.

The country continues to attract an estimated , foreign tourists annually. The National Highway Authority is responsible for the maintenance of national highways and motorways.

The highway and motorway system depends mainly on north—south links connecting the southern ports to the populous provinces of Punjab and Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa.

Although this network only accounts for 4. From until the s the train system was the primary means of transport until the nationwide constructions of the national highways and the economic boom of the automotive industry.

Beginning in the s there was a marked shift in traffic from rail to highways; dependence grew on roads after the introduction of vehicles in the country.

There are an estimated airports and airfields in Pakistan—including both the military and the mostly publicly owned civilian airports. Although Jinnah International Airport is the principal international gateway to Pakistan, the international airports in Lahore , Islamabad , Peshawar , Quetta , Faisalabad , Sialkot , and Multan also handle significant amounts of traffic.

The civil aviation industry is mixed with public and private sectors, which was deregulated in In chemistry , Salimuzzaman Siddiqui was the first Pakistani scientist to bring the therapeutic constituents of the neem tree to the attention of natural products chemists.

In Pakistan was ranked 43rd in the world in terms of published scientific papers. The s saw the emergence of an active space program led by SUPARCO that produced advances in domestic rocketry , electronics , and aeronomy.

The successful launch of its first rocket into space made Pakistan the first South Asian country to have achieved such a task.

As an aftermath of the war with India , the clandestine crash program developed atomic weapons partly motivated by fear and to prevent any foreign intervention , while ushering in the atomic age in the post cold war era.

Pakistan is the first and only Muslim country that maintains an active research presence in Antarctica. Overall, it has the 20th-largest population of Internet users in the world.

Since the s Pakistan has made a significant amount of progress in supercomputing , and various institutions offer research opportunities in parallel computing.

The constitution of Pakistan requires the state to provide free primary and secondary education. At the time of the establishment of Pakistan as a state, the country had only one university, Punjab University in Lahore.

Pakistan has a large network of both public and private universities, which includes collaboration between the universities aimed at providing research and higher education opportunities in the country, although there is concern about the low quality of teaching in many of the newer schools.

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Pakistan has a 1,kilometre mile coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the far northeast.

The territory that now constitutes Pakistan was the site of several ancient cultures and intertwined with the history of the broader Indian subcontinent.

Initially a dominion , Pakistan adopted a constitution in , becoming an Islamic republic. An ethnic civil war and Indian military intervention in resulted in the secession of East Pakistan as the new country of Bangladesh.

A regional [31] [32] [33] and middle power , [34] [35] [36] Pakistan has the sixth-largest standing armed forces in the world and is also a nuclear power as well as a declared nuclear-weapons state, the second in South Asia and the only nation in the Muslim world to have that status.

Pakistan has a semi-industrialised economy with a well-integrated agriculture sector and a growing services sector. The country continues to face challenging problems, including overpopulation , terrorism , poverty , illiteracy , and corruption.

The name Pakistan literally means "land of the pure" in Urdu and Persian. P unjab , A fghania , K ashmir , S indh , and Baluchis tan.

Some of the earliest ancient human civilisations in South Asia originated from areas encompassing present-day Pakistan. During this period, Sufi missionaries played a pivotal role in converting a majority of the regional Buddhist and Hindu population to Islam.

The Mughals introduced Persian literature and high culture, establishing the roots of Indo-Persian culture in the region.

During this time, the English East India Company had established coastal outposts. The gradual decline of the Mughal Empire in the early 18th century enabled the Sikh Empire to control larger areas until the British East India Company gained ascendancy over South Asia.

The Muslim League slowly rose to mass popularity in the s amid fears of under-representation and neglect of British Muslims in politics.

Fazlul Haque , popularly known as the Pakistan Resolution. Thus, the election was effectively a plebiscite in which the Indian Muslims were to vote on the creation of Pakistan, a plebiscite won by the Muslim League.

However, the British did not want British India to be partitioned, and in one last effort to prevent it they devised the Cabinet Mission plan.

As the cabinet mission failed, the British government announced its intention to end the British Rule in — In the riots that accompanied the partition in Punjab Province, it is believed that between , and 2,, [] [] [] [] [] [] people were killed in what some have described as a retributive genocide between the religions [] [] while 50, Muslim women were abducted and raped by Hindu and Sikh men and 33, Hindu and Sikh women also experienced the same fate at the hands of Muslims.

With dominion status in the Commonwealth of Nations, independent Pakistan had two British monarchs before it became a republic.

The creation of Pakistan was never fully accepted by many British leaders, among them Lord Mountbatten. Maulana Shabbir Ahmad Usmani , a respected Deobandi alim scholar who occupied the position of Shaykh al-Islam in Pakistan in , and Maulana Mawdudi of Jamaat-i-Islami played a pivotal role in the demand for an Islamic constitution.

Mawdudi demanded that the Constituent Assembly make an explicit declaration affirming the "supreme sovereignty of God" and the supremacy of the shariah in Pakistan.

A significant result of the efforts of the Jamaat-i-Islami and the ulama was the passage of the Objectives Resolution in March The Objectives Resolution has been incorporated as a preamble to the constitutions of , , and Democracy was stalled by the martial law that had been enforced by President Iskander Mirza , who was replaced by army chief , General Ayub Khan.

After adopting a presidential system in , the country experienced exceptional growth until a second war with India in that led to an economic downturn and wide-scale public disapproval in In Pakistan held its first democratic elections since independence, meant to mark a transition from military rule to democracy, but after the East Pakistani Awami League won against the Pakistan Peoples Party PPP , Yahya Khan and the military establishment refused to hand over power.

Independent researchers estimate that between , and , civilians died during this period while the Bangladesh government puts the number of dead at three million, [] a figure that is now nearly universally regarded as excessively inflated.

Rose believe there was no genocide. With Pakistan surrendering in the war, Yahya Khan was replaced by Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as president; the country worked towards promulgating its constitution and putting the country on the road to democracy.

Democratic rule resumed from to —an era of self- consciousness , intellectual leftism , nationalism , and nationwide reconstruction. Democracy ended with a military coup in against the leftist PPP, which saw General Zia-ul-Haq become the president in This period is marked by prolonged stagflation , instability, corruption , nationalism , geopolitical rivalry with India , and the clash of left wing - right wing ideologies.

When the National Assembly historically completed its first full five-year term on 15 November , the new elections were called by the Election Commission.

The idea of Pakistan, which had received overwhelming popular support among Indian Muslims, especially those in the provinces of British India where Muslims were in a minority such as the United Provinces.

The Objectives Resolution in March , which declared God as the sole sovereign over the entire universe, represented the first formal step to transform Pakistan into an Islamic state.

The strongest opposition to the Islamist ideological paradigm being imposed on the state came from the Bengali Muslims of East Pakistan [] whose educated class, according to a survey by social scientist Nasim Ahmad Jawed, preferred secularism and focused on ethnic identity unlike educated West Pakistanis who tended to prefer an Islamic identity.

It also stated that all laws would have to be brought into accordance with the injunctions of Islam as laid down in the Quran and Sunnah and that no law repugnant to such injunctions could be enacted.

Bhutto agreed to some Islamist demands before being overthrown in a coup. According to a PEW opinion poll a majority of Pakistanis support making Sharia the official law of the land.

The geography and climate of Pakistan are extremely diverse, and the country is home to a wide variety of wildlife. It is the 33rd-largest nation by total area , although this ranking varies depending on how the disputed territory of Kashmir is counted.

Geologically, Pakistan is located in the Indus—Tsangpo Suture Zone and overlaps the Indian tectonic plate in its Sindh and Punjab provinces; Balochistan and most of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa are within the Eurasian plate , mainly on the Iranian plateau.

Gilgit—Baltistan and Azad Kashmir lie along the edge of the Indian plate and hence are prone to violent earthquakes.

This region has the highest rates of seismicity and largest earthquakes in the Himalaya region. Pakistan is divided into three major geographic areas: There is an expanse of alluvial plains along it in the Punjab and Sindh.

The climate varies from tropical to temperate, with arid conditions in the coastal south. There is a monsoon season with frequent flooding due to heavy rainfall, and a dry season with significantly less rainfall or none at all.

There are four distinct seasons in Pakistan: The diversity of the landscape and climate in Pakistan allows a wide variety of trees and plants to flourish.

The forests range from coniferous alpine and subalpine trees such as spruce , pine , and deodar cedar in the extreme northern mountains to deciduous trees in most of the country for example, the mulberry-like shisham found in the Sulaiman Mountains , to palms such as coconut and date in the southern Punjab, southern Balochistan, and all of Sindh.

The western hills are home to juniper , tamarisk , coarse grasses, and scrub plants. Mangrove forests form much of the coastal wetlands along the coast in the south.

Coniferous forests are found at altitudes ranging from 1, to 4, metres 3, to 13, feet in most of the northern and northwestern highlands.

In the xeric regions of Balochistan, date palm and Ephedra are common. In most of the Punjab and Sindh, the Indus plains support tropical and subtropical dry and moist broadleaf forest as well as tropical and xeric shrublands.

These forests are mostly of mulberry , acacia , and eucalyptus. Around bird species are found there, [] [] including crows , sparrows , mynas , hawks , falcons , and eagles.

Palas, Kohistan , has a significant population of western tragopan. The southern plains are home to mongooses , small Indian civet , hares, the Asiatic jackal , the Indian pangolin , the jungle cat , and the desert cat.

There are mugger crocodiles in the Indus, and wild boar , deer, porcupines , and small rodents in the surrounding areas. The sandy scrublands of central Pakistan are home to Asiatic jackals, striped hyenas , wildcats, and leopards.

The chinkara is the only animal that can still be found in significant numbers in Cholistan. A small number of nilgai are found along the Pakistan—India border and in some parts of Cholistan.

The flora and fauna of Pakistan suffer from a number of problems. Pakistan has the second-highest rate of deforestation in the world, which, along with hunting and pollution, has had adverse effects on the ecosystem.

The government has established a large number of protected areas, wildlife sanctuaries, and game reserves to address these issues. The first successful democratic transition occurred in May Politics in Pakistan is centred on, and dominated by, a homegrown social philosophy comprising a blend of ideas from socialism , conservatism , and the third way.

As of the general elections held in , the three main political parties in the country are: Since Independence, Pakistan has attempted to balance its relations with foreign nations.

The Kashmir conflict remains the major point of contention between Pakistan and India; three of their four wars were fought over this territory.

Because of ideological differences, Pakistan opposed the Soviet Union in the s, and during the Soviet—Afghan War in the s, Pakistan was one of the closest allies of the United States.

Pakistan does not have diplomatic relations with Israel ; [] nonetheless, some Israeli citizens have visited the country on tourist visas.

Sino-Pakistani friendly relations touched new heights as both the countries signed 51 agreements and Memorandums of Understanding MoUs in for co-operation in different areas.

After Independence, Pakistan vigorously pursued bilateral relations with other Muslim countries [] and made an active bid for leadership of the Muslim world , or at least for leadership in efforts to achieve unity.

Pakistan vigorously championed the right of self-determination for Muslims around the world. A federal parliamentary republic state, Pakistan is a federation that comprises four provinces: Punjab , Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh, and Balochistan [] and three territories: The Government of Pakistan exercises the de facto jurisdiction over the Frontier Regions and the western parts of the Kashmir Regions , which are organised into the separate political entities Azad Kashmir and Gilgit—Baltistan formerly Northern Areas.

In , the constitutional assignment the Gilgit—Baltistan Empowerment and Self-Governance Order awarded the Gilgit—Baltistan a semi-provincial status , giving it self-government.

The local government system consists of a three-tier system of districts , tehsils , and union councils , with an elected body at each tier.

Law enforcement is carried out by a joint network of the intelligence community with jurisdiction limited to the relevant province or territory.

The court system is organised as a hierarchy, with the Supreme Court at the apex, below which are High Courts , Federal Shariat Courts one in each province and one in the federal capital , District Courts one in each district , Judicial Magistrate Courts in every town and city , Executive Magistrate Courts, and civil courts.

The Penal code has limited jurisdiction in the Tribal Areas, where law is largely derived from tribal customs. The Kashmir —the most northwesterly region of South Asia—is a major territorial dispute that has hindered relations between India and Pakistan.

The two nations have fought at least three large-scale conventional wars in successive years in , , and However, Pakistan failed to vacate the region and a ceasefire was reached in establishing a Line of Control LoC that divided Kashmir between the two nations.

Pakistan claims that its position is for the right of the people of Jammu and Kashmir to determine their future through impartial elections as mandated by the United Nations, [] while India has stated that Kashmir is an integral part of India, referring to the Simla Agreement and to the fact that elections take place regularly.

The law enforcement in Pakistan is carried out by joint network of several federal and provincial police agencies. The four provinces and the Islamabad Capital Territory ICT each have a civilian police force with jurisdiction extending only to the relevant province or territory.

The most senior officers of all the civilian police forces also form part of the Police Service , which is a component of the civil service of Pakistan.

Namely, there are four provincial police service including the Punjab Police , Sindh Police , Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Police , and the Balochistan Police ; all headed by the appointed senior Inspector-Generals.

The CID bureaus are the crime investigation unit and forms a vital part in each provincial police service. Open a free demo account.

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